Glossary of terms

Application machine – specific machinery is controlled by electronics intended for the application of blown insulation. Blown insulation can be applied and compacted to a certain density into the building structure. The basic parameter set on the application machine is the ratio between the amount of air (which acts as a carrier during the application of blown insulation) and the amount of applied insulation.

ETICS – External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems. ETICS is defined as a construction product, delivered as a complete set of components. This consists of adhesive, thermal insulation, anchoring elements, base layer and final surface treatment.

Blown insulation – This type of insulation is usually intended for the insulation of ground structures. Specific machinery is used for this application also and can be used on all areas of the structure. The machine has the capacity to adjust the density of the insulation. All areas of the building are able to be insulated.

Blown Cellulose Insulation – Building insulation produced from recycled newsprint. Cellulose-based insulation is beneficial to the environment and harmless to health. Benefits of acoustic insulation, completely surpasses mineral insulation and polystyrene. Cellulose deals well with increased humidity within the building structure. Disadvantage is the lower reaction time to fire (compared to mineral insulation). A representative of blown cellulose insulation is, for example, Climatizer Plus®.

Blown-in mineral insulation – Fibrous mineral wool designed for blowing-in application using a special technology. The insulator is produced as a melt of a mixture of rocks, other impurities and additives. The insulation has slightly worse thermal and acoustic properties than cellulose insulation, but it has an order of magnitude higher reaction to fire. A representative of blown mineral insulation is, for example Climastone®.

Blown graphite polystyrene – Non-absorbent polystyrene foam with graphite admixture. This non-absorption material, is suitable for blowing in hollow structures exposed to permanent and increased moisture levels It is suitable for insulating external hollow walls and hollow floors. It has excellent insulating properties, as the coefficient of thermal conductivity is 0.034 W/m.K. The reaction to fire class is E. A representative of blown graphite polystyrene is, for example, Climastyren®.

Specific heat capacity – A physical quantity expressing the amount of thermal energy that must be supplied to 1 kg of material to raise its temperature by 1 K. Specifically, the higher the “c” value of a material, the better its insulating capabilities. The mark is the letter “c”.

Zero-energy house – A house that has energy consumption close to zero, i.e., 0 – 5 kWh/m2 of living space per year. Therefore, the heat gains of the house should equal the heat losses. Such a solution can only be achieved under extraordinary conditions, so in practice we rarely encounter this type of construction.

Low-energy house – It is a “standard” building that has energy consumption for heating in the range of 15-50 kWh/m2/year. This is achieved by high-quality design and implementation of construction procedures, without thermal bridges. The insulation capabilities of the object are dimensioned according to the recommended values of the relevant standard. The air circulation can also be controlled and possibly use heat recovery.

Volume filled blown insulation – The most common method of using blown insulation, in the vast majority of cases, it is not necessary to disassemble and reassemble the structure in a complex manner. Sometimes this method is also inaccurately called cavity insulation. Volumetric filling can be applied to horizontal (e.g., beam ceilings), inclined (e.g., roof construction, attic, etc.) or even vertical constructions (e.g., pre-wall from SDK, prefabricated wooden construction, cavity in the wall). If the manufacturer’s instructions regarding exact bulk density are followed, the material will not settle even after many years.

Vapor barrier – A type of foil that limits or prevents the penetration of water vapor contained in the air. A membrane that separates two different environments, usually the interior and exterior of the building. It is mainly used in roofs (or walls of wooden buildings, etc.) to prevent the leakage of water vapor from the interior into the structure of the house, vapor condenses and reduces the effectiveness of the thermal insulation and damages the load-bearing parts. The water vapor does not escape further, due to the main waterproofing, which leads to the accumulation of condensed water (formation of mould, fungi, etc.). It is important that the vapor barrier is made continuously, otherwise steam will penetrate through unsealed opening. The joints are sealed with airtight tape. Correct function of the vapor barrier or vapor check: Only a controlled amount of vapor passes over the whole area, which is sufficient to ventilate through the insurance waterproofing layer through the covering to the outside. A broken vapor barrier lets in excessive moisture, the waterproofing layer above the insulation is not able to ventilate such a large amount. The entire structure gets wet.

Vapor check – A modern way to allow steam to leave the house on a molecular level – open the walls by diffusion. Instead of a vapor check, a so-called vapor check is used, which allows “breathing” of the house and allows water molecules from the inside of the building to the outside. Some moisture reaches the supporting (usually wooden) structure, it must be allowed to evaporate from the outside of the wall. All outer layers of the wall and especially thermal insulation must be permeable. A fundamental mistake would be to use e.g., polystyrene, it is necessary to install breathable insulators. Even the plaster must be vapor permeable. The new safety vapor check pro clima Intello is a vapor check with the world’s highest, effective in all climatic conditions, moisture-variable diffusion resistance (depending on the season – summer/winter).

Plus house – A house that produces more energy than it consumes. This can be achieved, for example, with passive houses, where we additionally produce our own energy from renewable sources. The construction of these houses is no different from passive houses. The house must have a perfect airtight envelope and very good thermal insulation.

Certificate of energy efficiency of the building – Certificate describing the energy efficiency of the building as a whole. With effect from 1/1/2009, the document is part of buildings during new construction or changes with a total floor area of over 1000 m2 (affecting their energy demand) + changes that take place on more than 25% of the total area of the building’s perimeter.

Passive house – A house that has a heat loss so low that it does not need a conventional heating system. Heat gains from the sun, people and electrical appliances will comfortably heat the entire house for most of the year. It consumes a maximum of 15 kWh/m2 of heated surface per year. However, this parameter is not the only indicator of this category of construction. Very strict emphasis is also placed on the so-called airtightness of the building. Living in a passive house does not only mean savings on heating costs, but can also lead to the elimination of health problems for its residents. The device, which also works at night, filters the air and thus rids it of harmful impurities and dust. The machine always delivers the correct the amount of air you need; residents should not have worry about mould.

Reaction to fire – The division of building materials in terms of class of reaction to fire according to CSN EN 13501-1 is as follows: A1 – non-flammable, A2 – not easily flammable, B – highly flammable, C/D – moderately flammable, E/F – slightly flammable.

Dew Point – The dew point is the temperature at which the air is maximally saturated with water vapor (relative air humidity reaches 100%). If the temperature falls below this point, condensation occurs. The dew point temperature is different for different absolute air humidifies: the more water vapor there is in the air, the higher the dew point temperature, i.e., the higher the temperature of the air (and steam) must be in order for the steam not to condense. Conversely, if there is very little water vapor in the air, the air can be cooler without the vapor condensing. Dew point can be considered as another expression of absolute air humidity.

Hammered trusses – One of the types of lattice trusses divided according to the design of individual joints. The individual rods of the truss are made of 20-40 mm thick planks or planks. Mutual execution is done with the help of nails. For spans over 12 m, joint trusses are usually used today. It is very convenient to use blown insulation to insulate the space of the trusses.

Coefficient of thermal conductivity – The basic parameter for assessing the thermal technical properties of insulation is the coefficient of thermal conductivity, which indicates the power (i.e., heat per unit of time) that passes through each square meter of a 1-meter-thick plate, one side of which has a temperature 1 kelvin higher than the other. The basic unit is watt per meter and kelvin (W/m. K). The mark is the Greek letter “λ”.

Heat transfer coefficient – It characterizes the thermal insulation ability of the structure. In the thermal engineering of buildings, this is the most important quantity that architects and civil engineers work with when designing. The basic unit is watt per square meter and kelvin (W/m2.K). It indicates how much heat passes through m2 of the structure at a temperature difference of 1K. The temperature difference is indicated from both sides of the structure. The brand is the letter “U”.

Thermal bridge – Thermal bridges are places where increased heat escapes from the heated space, respectively, they are places where much more thermal energy escapes per unit area than the surrounding structure with the same area. A thermal bridge can be thought of as a stream of water flowing out of a filled dam through a crack. In practice, thermal bridges manifest themselves as a colder place in the interior or, conversely, a warmer place in the exterior, if of course the interior is warmer than the exterior. The increased heat flow flowing from a warm room often causes, in addition to higher heat losses, problems associated with a higher concentration of moisture in a given place (formation of mould, lower service life of building elements and structures).

Open blown insulation – Insulation applied by an application machine to a low density – usually around 28 – 40 kg/m3. Impassable attics are most often isolated in this way. When applying by open blowing, it is necessary to count on a settling of approx. 10% (note that during application, therefore, 10% more material is blown there).